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Judaism: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
What Does the Hamsa Symbol Mean in Judaism?
A hamsa is an amulet shaped like a hand, with three extended fingers in the middle and a curved thumb or pinky finger on either side. It is thought to protect against the “evil eye” and is a popular motif in both Jewish and Middle Eastern jewelry.
The Basic Beliefs of Judaism
When learning about a religion one of the first questions people ask is: What do members of that religion believe? This article talks about what Jews, in general, believe.
Did Adam Have a Wife Before Eve?
According to Jewish folklore, Lilith was Adam's first wife. When she left her husband God created Eve as Adam's second wife, while Lilith went on to become the Queen of Demons.
Asher, Chavivi, Gilad and More Popular Hebrew...
Hebrew boys' names beginning with the letters A-G along with their meanings.
Ayla, Dorona, Eliora, and More Popular Hebrew...
Hebrew names for girls beginning with the English letters A-E, along with their meanings.
John Kerry's Jewish Roots
The story of Senator John Kerry’s Jewish past is of interest because it reflects the story of many European Jews who shed their Jewish heritage en route to America at the turn of the century.
The Most Popular Hebrew Baby Names for Girls
Naming a new baby can be an exciting (if somewhat daunting) task. Here are a few popular Hebrew names for girls to get you started.
Meaningful Hebrew Names for Baby Boys (H to M)
Hebrew boys names beginning with the letters H-M, along with their meanings and references to biblical characters with those names.
Choose a Hebrew Name for Your Baby Girl (L-P)
Hebrew names for girls beginning with the English letters L-P, as well as their meanings.
Q. Why do male Chasidic Jews have the long side...
Rabbi Shraga Simmons is asked why Orthodox Jews wear side curls in their hair.
Choose a Hebrew Girl's Name (G-K)
Hebrew names for girls beginning with the English letters G-K, as well as their meanings.
What Do Jews Believe Happens After We Die?
What happens after we die? All of us ask that question at one point or another. Though Judaism does not have a definitive answer, over the centuries a few possible responses have emerged.
Choose a Hebrew Boy's Name (N-Z)
Hebrew boys names beginning with the letters N-Z.
Choose a Hebrew Girl's Name (R-Z)
Hebrew names for girls beginning with the English letters R-Z, as well as their meanings.
Bar Mitzvahs for Beginners
This article is about the religious ceremony and party referred to as a bar mitzvah.
How to Choose a Hebrew Name for Your Jewish Baby
One of the many things new parents must decide is what to name their baby. Here is a brief guide to choosing a Hebrew name for your child. From the why, to the how, to the when.
Who Was Jesus According to Jewish Beliefs?
Stated simply, the Jewish view of Jesus of Nazareth is that he was an ordinary Jewish man and preacher living during the Roman occupation of the Holy Land in the first century C.E.
What Is the Star of David's Significance in...
Learn more about the origin and meaning of the Star of David.
How Jewish People Became the Chosen People
A look at different interpretations of what it means for Jews to be the Chosen People.
All About the Torah, Judaism's Most Important...
The Torah is Judaism's most important text. It contains the Five Books of Moses and is the source of the Ten Commandments and the 613 mitzvot.
Why Do Some Jews Spell 'God' as 'G-d?'
An explanation of why some Jews write G-d instead of spelling out the word
What Does It Really Mean to Be 'Jewish?'
Is Judaism a race, a religion or a nationality?
Gaza Disengagement: The History of the Gaza Strip
What is the history of Israel in the Gaza Strip? How has Israel gotten herself into a situation where Disengagment from Gaza is so complicated and painful?
Chai: What the Hebrew Word and Symbol Really...
: Chai (חי) is a Hebrew word and symbol that means “life.” It is spelled with the Hebrew letters Het
How to Use the Yiddish Word 'Verklempt'
Verklempt is a Yiddish word that means
Essential Etiquette for Bar and Bat Mitzvah Gifts
I was invited to a bar/bat mitzvah. Should I bring a gift? If so, what kind of gift is appropriate?
All About the Jewish Holiday of Hanukkah
Hanukkah is a Jewish holiday celebrated for eight days and nights. It usually falls in late November or December on the secular calendar.
What Is Tisha B'Av?
Tisha B'Av is a Jewish day of mourning - and a fast day - that commemorates the destruction of the two Temples.
Meet Ruth: Judaism Convert and King David's...
According to the biblical Book of Ruth, Ruth was a Moabite woman who married into an Israelite family and eventually converted to Judaism. She is the great-grandmother of King David and hence an ancestor of the Messiah.
Why Jewish Men Wear Yarmulkes
After the Star of David, a kippah is one of the most recognizable symbols of Jewish identity.
Ways to Support Israeli Soldiers - Solidarity...
These funds and organizations offer you a way to show solidarity with Israel and support Israeli soldiers and Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
What Does the Brit Milah (Bris) Signify for...
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Do Jews Believe in Satan?
In Judaism, “Satan” is not a sentient being but a metaphor for the evil inclination – the yetzer hara – that exists in every person and tempts us to do wrong.
Branches of Judaism - Denominations Humanistic...
Jewish movements, often referred to as denominations, branches or sects of Judaism, differ from each other in some beliefs and thus in the way they observe Judaism. Main movements include Secular Humanist, Reconstructionist, Reform, Conservative and Orthodox.
How to Light Yahrzeit (Memorial) Candles
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >What is a Yahrzeit
What Was the First Temple in Jerusalem?
King Solomon built the first Jewish temple as a place of worship and a monument to God. It was destroyed in 587 B.C.E. by the Babylonians - a tragic event that is still remembered every year on Tisha B'Av.
When a Jewish Person Calls You a Mensch, What...
: Mensch (מענטש) a Yiddish word that means "a person of integrity." A mensch is someone who is responsible,
Hasidic Judaism - Ultra-Orthodox Jews - Hasidism
Hasidic Judaism is one movement within Haredi Judaism. The Hasidic movement is unique in its focus on the joyful observance of God’s commandments (mitzvot), heartfelt prayer and boundless love for God and the world He created. Many ideas for Hasidism derived from Jewish mysticism (Kabbalah).
10 Things Everyone Should Know About Judaism
Ten of the most common questions asked about Judaism. From questions about Jewish beliefs to our most sacred text, this article is a great place to begin learning about Judaism.
What You Should Know About Jezebel from the Bible
Jezebel was the daughter of Ethbaal, King of the Phoenicians, and one of the wives of Ahab, King of North Israel. Her story is recounted in 1 Kings and 2 Kings, where she is described as a worshiper of the god Baal and the goddess Asherah, and as an enemy of God's prophets.
Jewish Contributions to Society
Find a small list of contributions Jewish people have made to society, from Galileo to Levi Strauss.
Jewish Definitions: What Are the Five Books of...
The Five Books of Moses are the biblical books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
How Are Tefillin Used in Jewish Prayer?
Tefillin are two small leather boxes that are worn by observant Jewish men during morning services. One box is attached to an arm and the other is affixed between the eyes, just above the forehead.
A Woman of Valor - Eshet Chayil
A Woman of Valor, Eshet Chayil in Hebrew, is a hymn which is customarily recited on Friday evenings, after returning from synagogue and singing "Shalom Aleichem" and before sitting down to the Shabbat evening meal.
Mezuzah - What, Why and How of Mezuzot
What is a mezuzah? Why hang a mezuzah? Where to affix a mezuzah? Which blessing is said when affixing a mezuzah?
Ten Commandments
When the Israelites accepted the Ten Commandments from God at Mount Sinai, they committed themselves to following a moral code of behavior.
What It Means When You Say 'Mazel Tov!'
mazel tov definition yiddish glossary jewish sayings hebrew phrases
Meet Miriam: Prophetess and Moses' Older Sister
In the Bible Miriam is the older sister of Moses. She is also a prophetess who plays an important role in the Israelite exodus from Egypt.
King David
King David was the most brilliant leader of ancient Israel and the first king of a united Israel. Read a biography of this Jewish leader.
When does Shabbat begin and end each week?
When does the Jewish Sabbath (Shabbat) begin and end each week? How can I find beginning and ending times for Jewish holy days?
Inside the Jewish High Holiday of Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur is one of the most important Jewish holidays and is one of two High Holidays. Yom Kippur falls ten days after Rosh HaShanah and is the day when God decides the fate of each person.
Everything You Need to Know About Passover
Passover is one of the most widely celebrated Jewish holidays and commemorates the biblical story of Exodus, when Hebrew slaves were released from bondage in Egypt.
Women in the Bible: Do You Know the Story of...
In the biblical Book of Esther, Vashti is the wife of King Ahasuerus, the ruler of Persia.
What are Tzitzit - Why do Jews wear Tallis -...
What is the Tallit - tallis - that Jews wear during prayer services?Why does Jews wear tzitzit - fringes or tassels?
Rosh HaShanah: A Beginner's Guide to the Jewish...
Rosh HaShanah is the Jewish New Year. It falls once a year during the month of Tishrei and occurs ten days before Yom Kippur.
Israeli Online News Broadcasts - Online Live...
You can view live video broadcasts of news in Israel from Israeli news sources. It is a great way to practice Hebrew and see how the Israeli media is covering current events in Israel and the Middle East.
Why Bad Things Happen to Good People - Judaism
Judaism can explain why bad things happen to good people - including murder.
Q. Why do Jews say "L'Chaim" when...
Rabbi Shraga Simmons explains why Jews say L'Chaim when they drink wine.
Jewish Jokes - A Priest and a Rabbi
temptations of the flesh rabbi temptation lt faith: Glossary of Jewish Jokes
What Is Midrash?
Midrash is a form of rabbinic literature. There are two types of midrash: midrash aggada and midrash halakha.
Definition of Chutzpah (Yiddish Word)
Chutzpah is a Yiddish word that is used by Jews and non-Jews alike to describe someone who is particularly audacious or has a lot of
Judaism 101: Learn All About Family Shabbat...
In many Jewish homes a special blessing is said over the children on Friday evening as Shabbat begins. Learn how to say these blessings and why they are said.
What Really Happened in the Biblical Passover...
The Passover story is recounted in the biblical book of Exodus. It begins with the enslavement of the Hebrews and ends with their freedom from bondage.
Hebrew Names for Boys
Use this list of popular Biblical names and modern Israeli names to find a Hebrew name for your son.
How to Celebrate the Jewish Holiday of Purim
A festive Jewish holiday that celebrates the deliverance of the Jews from their enemies in the biblical Book of Esther.
Haredi Judaism - Ultra-Orthodox Jews - Haredim
Haredi Judaism is often translated as ultra-Orthodox Judaism, although Haredi Jews themselves object to this translation. Haredi Jews consider themselves to be the true Jews, and consider all the more liberal forms of Judaism to be unauthentic. Learn more about Haredim.
Definition of Shiksa (Yiddish Word)
Shiksa is a Yiddish word that refers to a non-Jewish woman who is either romantically interested in a Jewish man or who is a Jewish man's object of affection.
What Was the Great Revolt?
The Great Revolt was the first of three major Jewish rebellions against the Romans. It eventually resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple.
Branches of Judaism - Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism is the most traditional branch of Judaism. Orthodox Judaism believes that both the Written and Oral Torah are of divine origin, containing the exact words of God without any human influence.
Jewish Sabbath Rituals - Friday Evening in an...
An important part of Judaism is acknowledging the fruits of the earth as a gift from God. Hence, Judaism prescribes the recitation of blessings before and after eating, before enjoying fragrant aromas such as spices, or upon seeing pleasing sights such as rainbows. The blessing serves to elevate the physical into the realm of the spiritual. On Friday evening, as Jews welcome in their holy day of rest, Shabbat, blessings are recited over candles, wine, bread, children and more.
Ask the Reform Rabbi - Am I Jewish?
Reform Rabbi Jeff Goldwasser answers the question "Am I Jewish if my Jewish great-grandfather married a non-Jew?"
Satmar Hasidic Judaism - Ultra-Orthodox Jews -...
Satmar Hasidism, which originated in the town of Szatmárnémeti (now Satu Mare, Romania), is a branch of ultra-orthodox Judaism founded by Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum in the 18th century. Like other Haredi Jews, Satmar Hasidic Jews live in insular communities, separating themselves from comtemporary secular society. Like other Hasidic Jews, Satmar Hasidim approach Judaism with joy. Like the Neturei Katra sect, Satmar Hasidim oppose all forms of Zionism.
All About Marriage and Weddings in Judaism -...
What is the Jewish view of marriage? Learn about marriage according to Judaism. Learn about the Jewish wedding ceremony. What makes Jewish weddings special?
Simchat Bat
How are Jewish families today celebrating the births of their daughters? Does Judaism have naming ceremonies for baby girls like they have the bris for baby boys?
Albert Einstein Quotes
Albert Einstein was a Jewish theoretical physicist who developed the Theory of Relativity.
In the Beginning, There Was the... Androgyne?!
In rabbinic literature the androgyne was a creature that existed at the beginning of Creation in Genesis 1. It was both male and female and had two faces.
The Hebrew Language
Learn about the history of Hebrew as an ancient language and the development of Hebrew as a modern language today.
Passover Basics: How to Host a Seder
A Passover seder is a service held at home as part of the Passover celebration. It is always observed on the first night of Passover, and in some homes on the second night as well. On both nights, the seder concludes with a dinner.
Why Are Jewish Hand Washing Rituals Important?
Required before eating a meal at which bread is served, hand washing is a mainstay in the religious Jewish world beyond the dining room table.
What Is a Shofar?
The shofar is a Jewish instrument most often made from a ram’s horn, though it can also be made from the horn of a sheep or goat. It makes a trumpet-like sound and is traditionally blown on Rosh HaShanah, the Jewish New Year.
How Jews Celebrate Sukkot, the Feast of...
Sukkot, also known as the Festival of Booths, is a Jewish harvest holiday that falls five days after Yom Kippur.
What Is Challah?
Challah is a loaf of yeast-risen egg bread that is traditionally eaten by Jews on Shabbat, on ceremonial occasions and during festival holidays. The word
Every seven years, the land in Israel rests. So...
Every seven years, farmers who own land in Israel fulfill the mitzvah of shmita by taking a year off from working their land. What is this ancient and rare mitzvah (commandment)?
What Do the Foods on Your Seder Plate Mean?
Passover is a holiday full of ritual symbols that retell the Exodus story. Many of these symbols are displayed on the seder plate, which is the centerpiece of the seder table.
What to Wear to a Synagogue: The Dos and Don'ts
When attending synagogue services or a Jewish life-cycle event for the first time people often wonder: What should I wear? Find answers to this commonly asked question in this article.
Q. Why do Jewish families cover their mirrors...
Rabbi Ari Enkin is asked why Jewish families cover their mirrors after someone dies.
Ask the Rabbi - Clothing Worn by Jews
Rabbi Shraga Simmons answers a question about clothing worn by Jews.
Auschwitz Gas Chamber
Auschwitz Gas Chamber
All About Judaism's Sabbath Candles
Learn how to light Sabbath candles. Why do Jewish women light Shabbat candles? Which blessings are recited. What rituals are practiced on Judaism's Day of Rest?
Jewish Wedding Ring
Rabbi Barry Dov Lerner explains why, during the Jewish wedding ceremony, the groom puts the ring on the bride's index finger.
Night by Elie Wiesel - Holocaust Literature -...
Night, an autobiographical account of life in the Nazi death camps, is a must-read. Nobel Peace Prize winner Elie Wiesel takes his readers with him from his home, into the ghetto, on the transport, through Selections, into the concentration camps, on the Death March, and beyond. Reading this book gives one a deeper and more personal understanding of the Holocaust experience. Only with this understanding can one genuinely remember the Holocaust and thus help ensure it won't happen again.
Prayer for the Well-Being of the Israel Defense...
What prayer can I say for the well-being of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and Israeli soldiers?
Ask the Reform Rabbi - Will I be denied burial...
Am I allowed by Jewish law to get a tattoo? If I get a tattoo, can I still be buried in a Jewish cemetery?
Dybbuks: The Ghosts and Spirits of Jewish...
According to Jewish folklore, a dybbuk is a ghost or disturbed soul that possesses the body of a living person.
Sex in Judaism
What does Judaism's view on sex?
Sheva Brachot - Seven Blessings - Jewish...
What are Sheva Brachot? What are the Seven Blessings recited at Jewish Weddings?
Solomon - King of Israel
david and bathsheba king david and bathsheba copper smelting superpower status northern tribes: Biography of King Solomon.
Who Was Meyer Lansky?
The life of the man sometimes referred to as the “Mob’s Accountant.”
Ask the Rabbi - Seven
Rabbi Shraga Simmons answers a question about the number seven in Judaism.
Why did Jews stop making animal sacrifices
Why did Jews stop making animal sacrifices?
What Does It Mean to 'Become a Bar Mitzvah?'
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Bar Mitzvah literally
Why the Dreidel Is an Important Part of Hanukkah
A dreidel is a four-sided spinning top with a Hebrew letter on each side. It is used during Hanukkah to play a popular children's game.
The Jewish Way to Wage War
How does Judaism balance the supreme value it places on human life with the need to wage war?
How to Be a Mensch
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >One of the amazing
Q. What is the Jubilee Year in Judaism?
Rabbi Shraga Simmons explains the meaning of the Jubilee Year in Judaism.
Rosh HaShanah Food Customs
Rosh HaShanah is the Jewish New Year. Over the centuries it has become associated with many food customs. Learn more about them in this article.
Circling the Groom
Virtually experience a traditional Jewish wedding ceremony. This step-by-step guide shows how Jewish weddings are celebrated.
The Effects of the Holocaust on the Children of...
Evidence shows that the children of Holocaust survivors, referred to as the “Second Generation”, can be deeply affected – both negatively and positively -- by the horrific events their parents experienced.
Ask the Rabbi - Reasons for Keeping Kosher
Rabbi Shraga Simmons answers a question about why Jews keep kosher.
Jewish Accomplishments
Given that Jews comprise a mere 1/4 of 1% (13 million) of the world's population (6 billion) and that 99% of the world is non-Jewish, the following list of accomplishments by Jews is quite impressive.
Judaism and Homosexuality
While traditional Judaism views homosexual acts as wrong, more liberal branches of Judaism are allowing for the ordination of gay and lesbian rabbis and are allowing their rabbis and congregations to perform or host same-sex commitment ceremonies.
The 8 Most Important Things to Know About Rosh...
There's a lot to know about Rosh HaShanah, the Jewish New Year. But if a crash course is what you're after, here are the 8 most important things you should know about Rosh HaShanah.
What Foods Are Kosher for Passover?
Observing Passover requires a certain amount of knowledge when it comes to kosher do's and don'ts. In addition to eating matzah during your seder, Jews are prohibited from eating leavened bread during the entire week of Passover. A number of specific foods are also off limits.
What Is a Hanukkiyah?
A hanukkiyah is a candelabrum with eight candleholders (branches) in a row and a ninth candleholder set a little above the others. It is different from a menorah, which has seven branches and was used in the Temple before it was destroyed in 70 C.E.
Why Do Some Jewish Women Cover Their Hair?
In Judaism, Orthodox women cover their hair beginning when they get married. But why?
The 4 Questions to Ask on Passover
The Four Questions are an important part of the that highlight the ways in which Passover customs and foods distinguish the holiday from other times of the year. Although they are called
Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur Greetings
What are the correct ways for a non-Jewish (or Jewish) person to respectfully convey warm wishes to Jewish friends on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur?
The High Holidays
What are the Jewish High Holidays, or Judaism's High Holy Days? Are the Days of Awe and Ten Days of Repentance the same? Are Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur part of Yamim Noraim?
Learn the Rabbi's Role in the Jewish Community
The rabbi is the spiritual leader of a Jewish community. He or she is responsible for leading services, conducting life cycle events and serving as a counselor and role model.
Neturei Karta- Ultra-Orthodox Jews - Jewish Sect
Neturei Karta refers to an ultra-orthodox, anti-Zionist, extremist sect Judaism. Neturei Karta is a loosely governed group united primarily by its anti-Zionistic ideology. The name Neturei Karta is Aramaic for Guardians of the City, as they plan to watch over Jerusalem until the Messiah comes and creates a true Jewish homeland.
The Legend of Lilith: From Medieval to Modern...
According to Jewish mythology Lilith was Adam's first wife. Learn more about references to her in medieval texts and modern feminist texts.
Meet Jewish American Mobster, Arnold Rothstein
Biography of Rothstein, a New York businessman, gambler and mobster rumored to have fixed the 1919 World Series, and murdered in 1928.
Unveiling Ceremony
What is the unveiling ceremony.
The Story of the Jewish Holiday of Purim
Purim is a festive Jewish holiday that celebrates the deliverance of the Jews from their enemies in the biblical Book of Esther. Purim is celebrated on the fourteenth day of the Hebrew month of Adar. Purim is so-called because the villain of the story, Haman, cast the
All About Hamas
Hamas is a fundamentalist Islamic organization that won the Palestinian general elections in January 2006. Why did the Palestinian people vote for Hamas? What does the United States and Israel think of Hamas?
Make it kosher with mevushal wine!
Wine might seem an unlikely candidate for concern about kosher ingredients, but a past of use in pagan ritual means kosher wine has its own rules.
What is Teshuvah?
Teshuvah is a key Jewish concept that involves repentance and new beginnings.
Ask the Rabbi - Judaism on Same Sex Relations
Rabbi Shraga Simmons answers a question about same sex relations or homosexuality in Judaism.
How to Light a Hanukkah Menorah
Instructions for lighting the menorah during the holiday of Hanukkah including blessings and a list of materials you will need.
Do Jews Believe in Sin?
There are three kinds of sin in Judaism: sins against God, sins against another person, and sins against yourself.
What Do Jewish People Celebrate on Shavuot?
Learn about the origins of Shavuot as well as modern day customs for celebrating this holiday.
Who was Imma Shalom? The Talmud tells us!
Tracing the historical Imma Shalom, a well-known woman of the Talmud, is difficult if not impossible given the few texts and traditions available today.
Rosh HaShanah Glossary
The most important Rosh HaShanah words and terms for you to know.
Prayer for the State of Israel - Praying for...
What prayer can I say for the welfare of the State of Israel?
Q. What is a Ketubah?
A Ketubah is a marriage contract between a husband and wife that is signed before a Jewish wedding. The purpose of the Ketubah is to protect the woman's rights during the marriage and in case she is divorced or widowed.
How to Prepare for the Yom Kippur (or Any) Fast
Tips on how to prepare for the Yom Kippur (or any) fast.
How to Perform Havdalah
An introduction to havdalah, a beautiful ritual that brings Shabbat to an end.
Israeli Coins - Israeli Currency
Images of and information about modern Israeli coins.
What Candles Symbolize in Judaism
Candles have many symbolic meanings in Judaism and are used on a wide variety of religious occasions.
Muslim Views of Jews - Pew Research Survey
The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other, a large-scale attitudinal survey conducted by The Pew Research Center in 2006, puts the cards on the table when it comes to Muslim views of Jews.
Shiva - Period of Mourning
In Judaism, Shiva is the seven day mourning period observed by Jews after the funeral.
Everything You Need to Know About Jewish...
Learn about common aspects of the Jewish synagogue, from the bimah where the rabbi and cantor conduct services, to the aron kodesh where the torah scrolls reside.
Jewish dating: Is it a bashert or zivug you're...
You may have heard a Jewish friend talk about the dating game and finding their bashert, but have you ever heard someone mention finding their zivug?
Jewish Bedtime Rituals for Children
Add a Jewish element to your child's bedtime routine with these books, songs and simple bedtime ritual ideas.
Jewish Identity - Daughter of Jewish Father and...
Can I be considered Jewish if I am the daughter of a Jewish father and a Catholic mother?
First Temple - Jerusalem Temple - Beit HaMikdash
The First Temple, built in the tenth century BCE by King Solomon, served as the religious and national center of the Israelites, until it was destroyed in 586 BCE by the Babylonians.
What Is a Cantor In the Jewish Faith?
In Judaism, a cantor is the person who leads the congregation in prayer along with the rabbi. The position of cantor is significant because music plays a major role in Jewish prayer services.
Ark of the Covenant
What was the Ark of the Covenant?
What Do Jews Eat Hamentaschen Pastries During...
Hamentaschen are triangular-shaped pastries that are traditionally eaten during the Jewish holiday of Purim.
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